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GABATLAS - Cadna-owie - Hooray Aquifer Total Dissolved Solids map: Data


This dataset and its metadata statement were supplied to the Bioregional Assessment Programme by a third party and are presented here as originally supplied.

Data used to produce the predicted Total Dissolved Solids map for the Cadna-owie - Hooray Aquifer in the Hydrogeological Atlas of the Great Artesian Basin (Ransley et.al., 2014).

There are four layers in the Cadna-owie - Hooray Aquifer Total Dissolved Solids map data

A. Location of hydrochemistry samples (Point data, Shapefile)

B. Predicted Concentration (Filled contours , Shapefile)

C. Predicted Concentration Contours (Contours, Shapefile)

D. Prediction Standard Error (Filled contours , Shapefile)

The predicted values provide a regional based estimate and may be associated with considerable error. It is recommended that the predicted values are read together with the predicted error map, which provides an estimate of the absolute standard error associated with the predicted values at any point within the map.

The predicted standard error map provides an absolute standard error associated with the predicted values at any point within the map. Please note this is not a relative error map and the concentration of a parameter needs to be considered when interpreting the map. Predicted standard error values are low where the concentration is low and there is a high density of samples. Predicted standard errors values can be high where the concentration is high and there is moderate variability between nearby samples or where there is a paucity of data.

Concentrations are Total Dissolved Solids mg/L.

Coordinate system is Lambert conformal conic GDA 1994, with central meridian 134 degrees longitude, standard parallels at -18 and -36 degrees latitude.

The Cadna-owie - Hooray Aquifer Total Dissolved Solids map is one of 14 hydrochemistry maps for the Cadna-owie - Hooray Aquifer and 24 hydrochemistry maps in the Hydrogeological Atlas of the Great Artesian Basin (Ransley et. al., 2014).

This dataset and associated metadata can be obtained from www.ga.gov.au, using catalogue number 81693.


Hitchon, B. and Brulotte, M. (1994): Culling criteria for ‘standard’ formation water analyses; Applied Geochemistry, v. 9, p. 637–645

Ransley, T., Radke, B., Feitz, A., Kellett, J., Owens, R., Bell, J. and Stewart, G., 2014. Hydrogeological Atlas of the Great Artesian Basin. Geoscience Australia. Canberra. [available from www.ga.gov.au using catalogue number 79790]

Dataset History


Data was obtained from a variety of sources, as listed below:

  1. Water quality data from the Queensland groundwater database, Department of Environment and Resource Management

  2. Geological Society of Queensland water chemistry database (1970s to 1980s). Muller, PJ, Dale, NM (1985) Storage System for Groundwater Data Held by the Geological Survey of Queensland. GSQ Record 1985/47. Queensland.

  3. Geoscience Australia GAB hydrochemistry dataset 1973-1997. Published in Radke BM, Ferguson J, Cresswell RG, Ransley TR and Habermehl MA (2000) Hydrochemistry and implied hydrodynamics of the Cadna-owie - Hooray Aquifer, Great Artesian Basin, Australia. Canberra, Bureau of Rural Sciences: xiv, 229p.

  4. Feitz, A.J., Ransley, T.R., Dunsmore, R., Kuske, T.J., Hodgkinson, J., Preda, M., Spulak, R., Dixon, O. & Draper, J., 2014. Geoscience Australia and Geological Survey of Queensland Surat and Bowen Basins Groundwater Surveys Hydrochemistry Dataset (2009-2011). Geoscience Australia, Canberra Australia

  5. Water quality data from the Office of Groundwater Impact Assessment, Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Queensland Government

  6. Geoscience Australia (2010) Hydrogeochemical collection. A compilation of quality controlled groundwater data taken from well completion reports from QLD and NSW.

  7. Water quality data from the Office of Groundwater Impact Assessment, Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Queensland Government


Data covers the extent of the Cadna-owie-Hooray Aquifer and Equivalents as defined in Great Artesian Basin - Cadna-owie-Hooray Aquifer and Equivalents - Thickness and Extent dataset (Available from www.ga.gov.au using catalogue number 81678)


Groundwater chemistry data was compiled from the data sources listed above. Data was imported into ESRI ArcGIS (ArcMap 10) as data point sets and used to create a predicted values surface using an ordinary kriging method within the Geostatistical Analyst extension. A log transform was applied to the Alkalinity, TDS, Na, SO4, Mg, Ca, K, F, Cl, Cl36 data prior to kriging. No transform was applied to the 13C, 18O, 2H, pH data prior to kriging. The geostatistical model was optimized using cross validation. The search neighbourhood was extended to a 1 degree radius, comprising of 4 sectors (N, S, E and W) with a minimum and maximum of 3 and 8 neighbours, respectively, per sector. The predicted values surface was exported to a vector format (Shapefile) and clipped to the aquifer boundaries.


Prior to data analysis all hydrochemistry data was assessed for reliability by Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) procedures. A data audit and verification were performed using various quality checking procedures including identification and verification of outliers.

The ionic balance of each analysis was checked, and where the ionic charge balance differed by greater than 10%, these analyses were deemed unacceptable and were not considered for future analysis.

Data that passed the initial QA/QC procedures were checked against borehole construction and stratigraphic records to determine aquifer intercepts. Data were discarded in cases where there was no recorded location information or screen interval/depth information (to cross reference with borehole stratigraphy). One exception was chemistry data obtained from the NSW Governments Triton database. Groundwater chemistry data obtained from bore records in the Triton database that was also identified as GAB bores in the NSW Governments Pinneena database were assumed to be in the Pilliga Sandstone and were allocated to the Cadna-owie Hooray equivalent aquifer, despite many not recording depth information.

Groundwater chemistry data was sourced from multiple studies, government databases, and companies. Many of the studies used sub-sets of the same data. All duplicates were removed before mapping and analysis. The differences between data sources had to be reconciled to ensure that maximum value of the data was retained and for errors in the transcription to be avoided. This precluded any automated processing system. Random checks were routinely made against the source data to ensure quality of the process. Some source data was in the form of thousands of consecutive rows and required python scripts or detailed table manipulations to correctly re-format the information and re-produce records with all the well data, its location and hydrochemical data for a particular sample date on one row in the collated Excel spreadsheet. Alkalinity measurements, in particular, were often reported differently between studies and even within the same database and required conversion to a common unit. All data before 1960 was discarded.

The study uses a data collection compiled from petroleum well completion reports from QLD and NSW. This data underwent a thorough QC process to ensure that drilling mud contaminated samples were excluded, based on the procedure described by Hitchon, B. & Brulotte, M. (1994). Less than 5% of the samples compiled passed the QC procedure, but these provide invaluable insight into the chemistry of very deep parts of the aquifers (typically 1 - 2km deep).

Where multiple samples have been taken at the same well, an average of the analyses was used in the kriging but outliers were removed. Outliers were identified by looking for large differences between predicted and measured samples. Excessively high values compared to predicted values and typical measurements at the same bore were discarded.

Dataset Citation

Geoscience Australia (2015) GABATLAS - Cadna-owie - Hooray Aquifer Total Dissolved Solids map: Data. Bioregional Assessment Source Dataset. Viewed 11 April 2016, http://data.bioregionalassessments.gov.au/dataset/5044a067-35d1-4d6d-98a6-17974aa9226a.

Data and Resources

Additional Info

Field Value
Title GABATLAS - Cadna-owie - Hooray Aquifer Total Dissolved Solids map: Data
Type Dataset
Language eng
Licence Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/ (c) Commonwealth of Australia (Geoscience Australia) 2014
Data Status active
Update Frequency never
Landing Page https://data.gov.au/data/dataset/3857111d-cae6-409e-8447-78686cec2040
Date Published 2016-03-23
Date Updated 2022-04-13
Contact Point
Bioregional Assessment Program
Temporal Coverage 2016-03-23 00:00:00
Geospatial Coverage POLYGON ((0 0, 0 0, 0 0, 0 0))
Jurisdiction NONE
Data Portal data.gov.au
Publisher/Agency Bioregional Assessment Program